Cucumber

Cucumber is from the pumpkin genus with the scientific name of Cucumis sativus and the English name of Cucumber. This vegetable is a product of the hot season and its young plant is sensitive to frost. The average daily temperature for growing cucumbers is between 18 and 24 degrees Celsius.Cucumber is high in potassium and dissolves and reduces the body's uric acid (the human body has a property that can adapt to change, and if the changes are too much, it can cause some of the body's natural behaviors to change. There is an acidic and alkaline environment or the same alkaline that in some cases in the gastrointestinal tract may become acidic environment, which is said to be sour that foods that can acidify the environment can be called meat. And plant materials are more alkaline or the same game that can make the environment alkaline (which in the presence of an acidic environment is reduced to an acidic state) and for rheumatism, jaundice, itchy skin, headache, nasal congestion and crushing Kidney stones are suitable.It is interesting to know that cucumber fruit is consumed unripe.

Cucumber seeds germinate at 11 ° C. In cold regions, cucumbers are planted after the cold has subsided. In the southern regions of our country, this plant is planted in two seasons, spring and autumn. It should be noted that in the flowering stage, fertilizer should be applied to the plant from the bottom to increase the yield. If water stress is given to the cucumber plant, the fruits will be bitter. Of course, other factors such as irregularities in the amount of fertilizer, water and temperature will also cause bitterness, but the bitterness of the cucumber is natural due to the presence of a substance called cocomrine. Cucumbers can be grown well in almost any soil.But good soil is soil that is light, has good drainage and has a lot of organic matter (fertile). Some people have slandered cucumber and considered it a useless fruit, and their philosophy is that cucumber, in addition to not having a significant useful substance, is also slow to digest. And it has no benefit for the body except harm. It is true that cucumber is low in fat, starch and sugar, but it also has benefits that should not be underestimated. Eating, smelling and rubbing cucumber flesh on the forehead is useful for relieving headaches and also cucumber skin decoction cures jaundice. Cucumber juice is diuretic and removes kidney stones.

Cultivation method:

After selecting the seeds, we must think about how to sow. In general, we are faced with two ways to sow the seeds. One is direct cultivation and treasury cultivation, which is better to use cultivation in the treasury in these two ways in order to save on the use of greenhouse facilities and more and better care until germination. For direct sowing, the soil should have enough moisture and the so-called Gavroo, and it is better to pour the required amount of bitumen under and over the seeds.
The best soil for planting in seedling pots is a natural substance called bitumen, which is found in foreign and Iranian varieties. If the location of the seedling tray has a temperature of 30 ° C and there is enough light and moisture, the seeds will germinate after 5 to 7 days, and if the conditions are not suitable and the light, heat and humidity factors are not desired, first Germination is delayed and, secondly, there will be disturbances in plant growth. It is recommended to keep this type of seeds in a cotton or cotton cloth at 30 ° C for 24 hours before planting in the ground or in pots due to their high cost. Care must be taken to soak the seeds in lukewarm water before doing so. On the other hand, care must be taken to transfer the young plant to the ground without pests and diseases.

Transplanting seedlings to the main land:

When the seeds have sprouted and grown enough, we have to move them to the greenhouse. For this purpose, we install holes that are calculated with a certain distance and based on plant density per square meter on the beds, which is exactly the size of the soil volume of the planting tray pots. Then, with complete caution, separate the seedlings from the pots along with the potting soil and place them in the holes. Here we must be careful not to damage the roots. After transferring the seedlings to the ground, we start irrigating. Remember that the time it takes for the seedlings to be in the pot should not be longer than usual, because then the roots will have problems due to the small volume of soil and will stop growing normally, and as a result the plant will be weak from the beginning and then It will not grow properly.

Plant density:

In order to achieve the maximum yield per square meter of plant density is important. Some farmers and greenhouse owners believe that if the number of plants per unit area is higher, they can harvest more. Based on the experiences obtained in soil greenhouses for the existing varieties of density equal to 1.7 to 3 plants, according to personal experience of the planting season and the type of variety in terms of small and large leaves, in which case farmers can Experience and relevant experts helped. It goes without saying that this work has technical and important reasons, such as the amount of exposure and absorption of soil nutrients in cold seasons.Therefore, because the plants have enough light and have good growth, they should be planted in such a way that they do not cast less shadow on each other, in other words, they do not prevent the plant from receiving enough light. On the other hand, in cold seasons, the amount of food Soil supply to the roots is reduced, and if the density is high in such a situation, it is natural that not enough material will reach the roots.

Primary irrigation:

To irrigate the greenhouse, it is better to use the pressure system in drops. In this method, the best type is the use of irrigation tapes that prevent water wastage. We will irrigate the plant according to a regular schedule, because irrigation traditionally washes away nutrients in the soil while reducing water consumption as well as greenhouse moisture, and reduces root access to these nutrients. It is worth noting that plant irrigation varies based on plant age, soil texture and time of use.For example, it can be said that the soil needs less water in winter than in summer, but in any case, it should be irrigated evenly and regularly, and certainly in light soils, the amount of irrigation will be less and the time interval between them will be less. . It is recommended not to saturate the soil for a long time when irrigating, and be sure to observe 25% humidity between waterings. In other words, to irrigate alternately, irrigate when the soil moisture has reached 25%. Also know that the cucumber plant needs more water when it reaches flowering.
Some farmers believe that after the young plant has completed its true 4 leaves, the plant should be given a period of thirst. Because it is believed that the root of the plant in a state of thirst naturally penetrates deep into the soil to find water, and this movement of the root increases the volume of the root. However, the plant will grow rapidly after a period of thirst and irrigation.During the growth of the plant, the greenhouse threads should be prepared and connected to the restraint wires in the roof space of the greenhouse above the plants so that during the rapid growth of the plants, they are regularly tied around the threads. To close the plants around the threads, There are various ways that the bottom of the threads can be tied to the restraint wire at the bottom of the plant, or the extra thread can be wrapped around the wire spools and placed on the restraint wire, or by special clips that are the size of the plant stem diameter. It is tied to the end of the threads. It established the connection between the stem and the thread without tying it to the plant. will be.

wATERING systems :

Greenhouse irrigation for light soils can be by leakage method, ie by creating an atmosphere and ridge irrigation. If drip systems are used with special pipes, we need an accurate calculation because usually the middle of the pipeline has less water pressure and therefore irrigation is not done uniformly. Drip irrigation should be done Be sure to connect the onion between the two droppers.
As you know, a certain amount of ground water evaporates daily, which must be provided at the right time. If we are suspicious about the water in an area, we make the final decision by testing the water. The permissible values of ec in water are provided based on the millisecond. Up to 4 and ec above 4 is very unacceptable.

Initial pruning:

In the cucumber plant, we do not do any pruning until the height of the plant reaches 30 cm. But after the plant reaches a height of 30 cm, we gradually remove its branches and fruits and flowers. By doing this, we allow the plant to spend all the energy produced by the plant on the growth of the stem and primary leaves, and thus the plant is strong and lush. Some experts and farmers with some backgrounds allow the sub-branches to grow and adjust the length of the sub-branches based on the variety and planting season.It should be noted that in the spring, the terminal buds of the branches are removed after the appearance of the fifth leaf. Remember that the initial pruning of the plant will have a direct and very good effect on the growth and fruiting of the plant, provided that Principles to be done.

Harvesting:


One of the things that should be done very carefully so as not to damage the plant is how to pick cucumbers from the plant, which is important for some reasons. The basic and correct way to pick cucumbers from the plant is to pull it up to the stem. This action causes the fruit residue or tail to remain on the stem, because leaving this part on the stem causes the stem to rot, and on the other hand, the fruit tail, in addition to making the fruit heavier, prevents it from softening. Fruits can be grown quickly. In most greenhouses today, cucumbers are separated from the branches with scissors. This can be problematic when the scissors are infected with certain fungal diseases and viruses.In this case, the possibility of transmitting the disease from one plant to another is high. It is not bad to know that a device has recently been invented that can separate the fruit from the stem by radiation. But as long as access to these devices is possible, it is better to pick the fruit with gloves as much as possible. Be not infected.

Planting:

Shrubs should be pulled down when they reach the useful roof of the greenhouse. The important point in this period is pruning the worn and older leaves during the harvest period. So that when lowering the plant, the lower leaves, while they have lived, have a small number left for pruning. You should always remember that pruning of worn leaves should not be more than 3 leaves per plant at a time and at least 18 to 25 leaves remain on the plant.Pruning of worn leaves should be done periodically and periodically so that there is no problem during pruning and also make sure that the leaves we prune should not exceed the number of leaves produced. However, after pruning the older leaves and reaching the top of the plant, 3 methods are common for pruning the cucumber plant.

First, by removing the lower leaves and loosening the threads from the spool that is attached to the restraint wire, place the stem in a round shape on the ground. Meters are embedded fall. When the plant reaches the end, we allow the two branches to continue to grow and move down again.We consider these two sub-branches as the main branches and after the growth of these branches, we remove the end bud of the main branch. They throw it on the wires to act as a canopy in the greenhouse. In this case, care must be taken that the bushes do not break during bending and later do not suffer from damage and disease.