Greenhouse education - the importance of growing greenhouse crops (Part 1)
In the first part of the greenhouse training series to: the importance of growing greenhouse crops, the most important and basic factors for the success of greenhouse cultivation and the factors affecting it, crops that can be grown and produced in greenhouses, disadvantages and possible problems in this direction have paid.
The importance of growing greenhouse crops
What is the importance of growing greenhouse crops?
Increase production per unit area
There is a solution to increase production in level 2 units:
- Increase the area under cultivation: In this method, there should be water and soil restrictions.
- Increase in production per unit area: The study of the World Food and Agriculture Organization shows that Asia has 31% of arable land and 58% of the world population and the population density in relation to agricultural land is about 8 people per hectare of land. Be.
This figure for Iran is about 4 people per hectare. Due to the large area of our country due to limitations such as mountainous and desert and soil salinity, alkalinity of the soil, the area of arable land is very limited and there is a need to increase yield per unit area.
Today, due to the increasing population on the one hand and water and soil constraints on the other hand, we feel the importance of increasing production per unit area more than before. This is in addition to using the right nutritional methods, especially micronutrients using other methods of greenhouse production and intensive land use using new techniques, even farmers who have small lands and limited water. They will be able to earn enough money.
Marketability of greenhouse products: Since pure and modified seeds are used to produce greenhouse products, the quality of the products is very high, which in addition to good marketing in the country, there is the possibility of exporting products, which is of great economic importance for the producer.
Another advantage of drip irrigation is better control of greenhouse humidity. Better control of greenhouse humidity helps to control fungal diseases that are activated at high humidity.
Out-of-season production: In the production of greenhouse products, in addition to increasing production per unit area by producing out-of-season production, it is possible to increase the price of the product, which is of great economic importance to the producer.
Early ripening and ripening: In the production of vegetables and summer, early ripening is an important factor in earning more money that the producer, having the knowledge and skill of ripening methods, can produce and market a series of products earlier than scheduled.
Optimal use of manpower: Manpower required to produce 20 tons of product in the greenhouse should be reduced to 1.3 compared to production in open space.
Possibility of growing and maintaining plants outside their main place: With greenhouse cultivation, it is possible to grow and maintain plants outside their main place.
Disadvantages of greenhouse cultivation
Greenhouse cultivation or production has special problems that are briefly:
1-The initial investment is large: most of the capital is spent on greenhouse construction. Of course, if the production is managed properly, this cost will be reimbursed in three to five years.
2- High current cost
3- Need for continuous care: because a little negligence may cause irreparable damage. For example, a sudden drop in greenhouse temperature on a cold winter night will destroy the entire crop.
Products that can be produced in the greenhouse:
Today, with the use of advanced structures and improved cultivars, we can grow most vegetables and summer crops in greenhouses.
The most important plants that can be grown in greenhouses are the following:
Scaffold cucumber (greenhouse)
A variety of leafy vegetables such as lettuce and cabbage
A variety of ornamental plants and cut flowers
The most important factors for the success of greenhouse cultivation
For complete success, some basic conditions in greenhouse cultivation are needed, the most important of which are mentioned below:
1- Need for constant presence: The activity in the greenhouse is very precise and requires the constant presence of the investor. People who want to produce enough with just investment and do not control production themselves will not have much success.
2- Heating systems: In semi-cold and cold climates, there is an urgent need for heating systems to be able to produce in the desired season. In some tropical regions of the country, cultivation can be done without a heating system.
3- Drip irrigation system: The use of drip irrigation systems has positive effects in reducing the humidity of the air in the greenhouse space and controlling soil temperature.
4- Air conditioning: Proper ventilation systems to remove excess moisture will play a major role in product health.
5- Cooling systems: The use of cooling systems that are used in the hot season.
6- Humidification systems
7- Adequate knowledge and information about greenhouses and greenhouse plants
8- Utilizing experts and people with experience in greenhouse affairs in elementary courses
9- Use the necessary facilities and updates, for better and appropriate operation and performance
10- Understanding the consumer market and market needs