Types of greenhouses according to climate
Different parts of the world do not have the same climate and due to this feature, the products and plants of each region are different from other regions. Get to know the types of greenhouses in terms of climate.
Different parts of the globe do not have the same climate and due to this feature, the products and plants of each region are different from other regions.
The main purpose of building a greenhouse for growing agricultural and horticultural products is to create a microclimate of suitable environment for plant growth. But what is the clear meaning of this phrase and how many types of greenhouses are divided based on environmental criteria?
Stay with us until the end of this article to learn more about the climate and its effect on setting up a greenhouse.
What is climate?
Geographers and meteorologists have used various phrases and sentences to define climate, the meaning of all of which is: the long-term weather conditions prevailing in a region.
Temperature and humidity are the main factors that determine weather conditions, according to which different regions of the earth are placed in one of the following four groups:
Hot and dry like Lut desert
Hot and humid like the south coast of Iran
Cold and humid like the mountainous regions of the west of the country
Moderate and humid like the southern shore of the Caspian Sea
The effect of climate on the construction of a greenhouse
It is obvious that the reason for the diversity of agricultural and horticultural products in different regions is the prevailing climate of that region and the type of soil has a great impact on the growth of plants.
We also know that each crop is cultivated or bears fruit in certain seasons of the year. So what is the people's solution to meet the needs of those types of agricultural products in other seasons? Do the people of the western regions of the country have to wait to be able to grow cucumbers when summer arrives?
The question we asked was only a very small example, which is also true for other edible, medicinal and even ornamental plant needs.
The circle of this issue sometimes even goes beyond the national borders and some people feel the need to cultivate products from distant countries and regions such as the tropical environment.
The history of the establishment of the first mobile greenhouses on chariots by the ancient Romans and its current type, which has been popular in our country for less than a century, is influenced by the need for products outside their growing season.
For this purpose, farmers try to create a microclimate (small climate) of suitable cultivation environment for their desired product, to grow it in any season and any place.
Types of greenhouses based on climate
When building a greenhouse, farmers should pay a lot of attention to the climate of their region and its difference with the suitable areas for growing the plants they want, so that they can do the best and most environmental simulation.
For example, in some regions where the weather is often cloudy, the roof of the greenhouses is made into a dome. The reason for this is to grow plants that need a lot of sunlight, and the dome roof can absorb more of the required solar energy.
Also, the width of the opening and the height of the greenhouse structure are directly related to the climate of the region. So, in cold and windy areas, they make the opening of greenhouses with a maximum of 8 meters wide and 7 meters long, but these dimensions will reach up to 9.5 and 12.8 meters respectively in warmer areas.
Important climatic factors in greenhouse construction
The most important factors that farmers should pay attention to when deciding to build a greenhouse and the type of product they want, or consider their effects during construction, are as follows:
the length of the day
One of the most important factors in the construction of a greenhouse and the necessary preparations for starting work is the distance between sunrise and sunset, or in other words, the length of the day.
This issue varies in different seasons of the year and in different parts of the globe. For example, in our country, we see long days with direct sunlight in the first half of the year, but the length of days and nights will be reversed in the second half of the year.
As we go towards the north and south poles, the balance between night and day decreases in these places. So that in some parts of Norway, in some months of the year, the weather is always dark and it is not possible to tell whether it is day or night without a watch.
For this reason, farmers who cultivate greenhouse plants should research the cultivation season, the hours of sunlight and also the plant's need for light in order to provide suitable conditions for the growth of that crop.
Angle of radiation
As you know, the earth is a sphere that revolves around the sun. At the equator and points close to it, which are almost on the bulge in the middle of the globe, the angle of sunlight is much more intense than in other areas.
On the other hand, greenhouses absorb more solar energy due to their glass or plastic cover. The intensity of the light sometimes creates a focal point of heat like a magnifying glass and causes the plants inside the greenhouse to burn.
For this reason, in addition to paying attention to the angle of the sun, farmers should consider measures such as canopy. The importance of this issue is more obvious in places like the south of the country, which are closer to the equator, to protect crops during the peak hours of sunlight.
Another important climatic factor in the construction of a greenhouse is air and soil temperature, which is directly related to the season and the angle of the sun.
Every plant, whether fruitful or non-fruitful, needs a certain temperature for growth and reproduction, and the purpose of building a greenhouse is to provide suitable conditions including this factor for its growth.
Farmers can set this factor in the desired state by using cooling devices or heating heaters and sometimes get help from canopies to control it more.
Creating moisture in the air and soil in greenhouses is easily possible with irrigation and cold misting devices.
Humidity is as important as other factors in the growth of plants, so those who have a greenhouse should always keep it at a certain level.
Most plants breathe carbon dioxide and need it to grow and survive. In greenhouses that do not have proper ventilation, reducing the amount of this gas may lead to wilting of plants.
Therefore, we recommend farmers to use carbon dioxide measuring sensors and install adequate ventilation for their greenhouses to prevent this incident.