Cannabis sativa

Plant Description:

Cannabis is one of the old crops whose main homeland is central Asia, from which it has gone to China and has more than 4,500 years of cultivation experience in this country.
Cannabis production is primarily for the use of fibers, which are used to prepare ropes, sacks, sugar yarns, ship sails, special fabrics for fishing nets, rescue bracelets. It is also used in the paper making industry. Its seeds are widely used in the lubricating and pharmaceutical industry. Cannabis plant has 2 bases, herbaceous, one year old and with a height of 1 to 3 meters even more and has different varieties and forms of cannabis has cross-sheets along the stem, but as we approach the end of the stem, its leaves become solitary.
The broadleaf of cannabis leaves is divided into 5 to 7 deep toothed lobes leading to long petiole. Its flowers are naturally separated by two types of males and females, located on two pedestals. One of the characteristics of male cannabis flowers is that it is integrated and hung on the base that leaves out of the congress and also appears in the end of the stem, each of these flowers also has 5 flags inside the cover of the flower. Female flowers generally have the same condition as male flowers, except that without a specific demagogue, they are placed next to brackets similar to leaves. The fruit of this plant is hazelnut and brown or dark and has a seed without albumin.

Ecological demands

Weather:

Cannabis is sensitive to cold and there should be no frost during its growth period as these two young Gia glacial agents eliminate cannabis. The amount of heat required for cannabis if it is for the production of fibers is less than those cultivated for seed production. Herbal cannabis has a short day and is very sensitive to light.

Soil:

The land in which cannabis is planted should be completely rich and fertile in terms of food and have sufficient depth and ventilation should be done well. Because the root of cannabis is relatively weak and sensitive, there should be enough food and moisture around it and also the earth is not swampy and such soil particles are completely uniform and its pH is about 7. The best pH for cannabis is between 5.6 and 4.7. Salty soils and cold, very heavy or very light soils are not suitable for planting this plant. The clay soils of Lemony or Lemony that are rich and fertile, and the lemon soils composed of river sediments or sandy clay soils are very suitable for the growth and development of this plant with

rotation:

Cannabis such as vegy plants is better to be alternated first because in addition to the high quality and quantity of the crop after cannabis, the ground is completely clean and the next plant that is placed in alternation will produce a good product. It is advisable to plant wheat after cannabis can also be planted two years consecutively in a cannabis field. Ground preparation: For cannabis planting, the land must be plowed into a depth of 25 cm in the autumn and added to the ground along with the plowing of manure. During winter, clods created by autumn plowing are crushed and disintegrated due to rain or cold and frost, and after the end of winter and in spring, when the temperature is suitable for seed cultivation, additional ground preparation should start on time. In the spring, the ground should be disced enough to make the remaining clods crushed and softened, and if the roots and remnants of the previous year's crop or weeds remained in the ground, they should be removed from the ground by the whenever the soil surface is high. The roller can be used to prepare enough soil to plant the seed by pressing it.

Kachten:

Cannabis is a spring plant, so it is sprayed in different regions from early to mid-spring if atmospheric conditions and temperature are favorable. Considering the length of the plant growth period, its flowering is done on time and the crop is also harvested in favorable conditions, the best planting time considering the variety and atmospheric conditions is from early to late May when the bud production decreases when the temperature drops and one degree Celsius reaches its germination stops. The amount of seeds needed depends on the variety and development of plant use, if the purpose of cannabis planting is to produce seeds, about 50 to 70 kg ha-1 seed is required, but if it is cultivated for the production of fibers, about 80 to 100 kg of seeds are needed, so more seeds should be cultivated for the production of fibers so that due to the dense plants, the stems are not splintered and the fibers are more and more high quality. Better produced.
The required depth for the seed is about 2 to 3 cm, but in any case, it depends on the genus of the earth. If planting is done by seedlings on the lines, plant distances of 15 to 17 cm for seed production and distances of 60 cm lines and for types planted for fiber production, plant distances on 20 cm lines and lines distances from each other 80 cm should be considered and generally there should be 160 to 180 plants per square meter. have.

Dasht:

After the seeding operation is finished, if the conditions are favorable, about 6 to 10 days after the bud is produced and will continue to grow rapidly, but at the beginning of the life period it is necessary to take action once or twice to weed the weeds in the land in areas where there is not enough rainfall because in the life period each hectare of cannabis cultivation is about 4500 cubic meters. It needs water and therefore it is necessary to water 6 to 8 times during this period, but in areas with suitable rainfall such as Gilan and Mazandaran, it is possible to plant it as rainfed. The most important time of need for water in the production stage is buds and flowers, which if the water is not sufficient in these two stages or the plant is exposed to drought for a while, it will be damaged, so at this stage of growth, the farm should be sufficiently aqueous.

Bardacht:

The time of cannabis harvesting depends on the weather and variety because male pyolids arrive about three weeks earlier than female bases, so their harvesting is done earlier, generally when male bases, flowers and fruit female bases are formed, harvesting can be started in small farmers to harvest male and female foundations separately and from seed female bases. In small fields, the harvest is carried out with sickles or knives, in which case the bushes are usually cut about 3 to 5 cm above the ground and spread out for drying on the ground. In hand harvesting, the risk of stems being broken is low, but the harvest duration is long. In large farms and in mechanized farms, they use special machines for harvesting, these machines are able to cut the stems and prepare in categories that each contain 15 to 20 stems, the packages stay on the farm for 3 to 4 days to dry, then transfer them to the warehouse or factory to separate the seeds and fibers or they are transported by combo. Special stalks separate the cannabis stems that remain on the ground.

Due to the activity of bacteria and rainfall and dew gradually decayed that the time it takes to rot depends on the weather and this is usually done within one to three weeks in hot and humid areas, rotting the stems is done better and earlier so that the dew effect on the stems is better and uniform and the rot is done equally, the stems are reduced to a low diameter. at the farm level.
When the operation of covering the stem is done too much, the quality of the fibers decreases. In general, if cannabis is planted for the production of fibers, male and female plants are harvested together, but if it is meant to produce fibers and seeds, they are harvested first by the hands of male plants and after three weeks female plants.

Work as a reply:

The amount of cannabis from each hectare is influenced by different factors about 2 to 5 tons and maximum 7 tons of dried stems that produce approximately 500 to 1500 kg of fibers. Also, about 5 tons of pulp can be produced from each hectare.

As long as it spreads:

Gilan and Mazandaran provinces are cultivated. In Gaz port, Khorasan, West of Iran, Thermis in Arak, Baluchistan and southwest of Iran.

Properties - Application:

In the Far East, cannabis is the most commonly used in China and Indochina. [Stuart] writes that in China, all different parts of the cannabis guy are used as medicine in traditional Chinese medicine, cannabis eggs are used as tonics, laxatives, softening stumps, painkillers and anti-animals, and gastric and opioid parasites. Waste consumption is dangerous to its permissible limits. That is, it is a painkiller that is used for severe zekam and vomiting, and in external use, blisters and wounds generally cause baldness. Cannabis plant has high value for tetanus treatment.Cannabis is a real and effective analgesic for abdominal pain and treatment of migraines, neuroalgia, rheumatism and nerve pain. (Corset and petello) in the Malaya peninsula kill its leaves and smoke it is useful for the elimination of poisoning, eggs after being shipped to Torbatib and used as a fever.
Cannabis according to traditional medicine rulings is different in terms of nature. Its leaves are al-Quwai in terms of compound nature, i.e. while it is very cold and dry, it is also dirty with subtle heat and cooling. The eggs are very hot and dry. The skin is cold and dry and they believe that because of the al-Quwai compound of the leaves, while Farah, Arwar, Neshat, Nikooy brings the color of rukhsar and sedik, it is also narcotics. And then it weakens, after the effects of the warm part of it, which is vitality, the effects of the cold part of it, which is tadmir and laxity, appears and destroys the appetite of the food, and ultimately causes sadness, teddyness, dark vision of the taste of madness, melancholy, fear and issas. It's in the ear to relieve the pain of the penetrating ear. Eating its leaves drys the moisture in the stomach and closes the abdomen and bills and increases urine secretion.
Its two leaves are useful for analyzing warm swelling and tskine nerve pain. The amount of feed up to 4 grams of harmful food is dangerous.
The egg relieves the heart's disintegration and dissipates the winds and is astringent that it causes headaches, reduces eye vision and is harmful to the stomach. frying to avoid these complications . Witness oil is hot and dry and is beneficial for ear pain, nerves, analysis of stiff swelling. A few drops are poured into the ear or rubbed on the organs and swelling.